The thyroid is an organ located on the neck that produces vital hormones. These hormones regulate the basal metabolic rate and act in almost all body cells and stimulate the energy metabolism there. They are also important for the growth and differentiation of cells. Iod is necessary for hormone formation. In the case of an undersupply, the thyroid hormones may not be produced. This hormone deficiency is then registered in our pituitary gland and the control hormone TSH is released, which is supposed to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more. However, the increased release of TSH also leads to thyroid growth and the so-called goiter can develop. The shape of the thyroid can be examined in humans by palpating the neck. A pronounced goiter is visible in humans.
In imaging diagnostics, ultrasound is mainly used, and scintigraphy is used for further clarification in the event of lumps and functional disorders. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography are also used for special questions. A fine needle aspiration of the thyroid gland is used to obtain samples for cytology. A biopsy is used to obtain samples for histological examination. These special examinations are then carried out after referral to the radiologist. The free T3 and T4 levels as well as the TSH and thyroglobulin levels can be determined in the laboratory. For special questions, further laboratory parameters such. B. Antibody requested. If we find an enlarged thyroid gland during the physical examination, the thyroid gland is further clarified using ultrasound (sonography).